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Unit conversion

Every entity - a molecule, a parameter, or an observer - has a certain dimension, like Amount, Concentration, or Volume. The dimension is a property of an entity:

library(ospsuite)
#> Loading required package: rClr
#> Loading the dynamic library for Microsoft .NET runtime...
#> Loaded Common Language Runtime version 4.0.30319.42000

# Load a simulation
simFilePath <- system.file("extdata", "Aciclovir.pkml", package = "ospsuite")
sim         <- loadSimulation(simFilePath)

# Get the parameter volume of the liver.
livParam    <- getParameter("Organism|Liver|Volume", sim)
print(livParam)
#> Parameter: 
#>    Path: Organism|Liver|Volume 
#>    Value: 2.1675 [l] 
#>    isDistributed: TRUE 
#>    isStateVariable: FALSE

# Dimension of the parameter
livParam$dimension
#> [1] "Volume"

The values of a certain dimension can be presented in different units - for example, l or ml for the dimension Volume, or mol and µmol for the dimension Amount. The list of all available units for an entity can be obtained using allUnits() method:

# Dimension of the parameter
livParam$dimension
#> [1] "Volume"

# Units of the parameter
livParam$allUnits
#> [1] "l"  "ml" "µl"

Internally, OSPS works with the base units, and all the values that are shown or passed to functions are in base units by default. These base units are often different from the units that are displayed by default in PK-Sim (and MoBi). The list of base and default display units can be found in the documentation.

As an example, the parameter BMI is given in the default unit kg/dm², while the default display unit is the more convenient kg/m².

The {ospuite} package provides a set of methods for conversion between different units. The methods toUnit(), toBaseUnit(), and toDisplayUnit() require the quantity to get the correct dimension and units; however, it does not change the value of the quantity!

# Get the BMI parameter
bmiParam <- getParameter("Organism|BMI", sim)
print(bmiParam)
#> Parameter: 
#>    Path: Organism|BMI 
#>    Value: 0.23436 [kg/dm²] 
#>    isFormula: TRUE 
#>    formula: Height>0 ? BW / (Height)^2 : 0 
#>    Value overrides formula: FALSE 
#>    isStateVariable: FALSE

# Print the base and the default display units
bmiParam$unit
#> [1] "kg/dm²"
bmiParam$displayUnit
#> [1] "kg/m²"

# Convert the value from the base into the default display unit
toDisplayUnit(quantity = bmiParam, values = bmiParam$value)
#> [1] 23.43633

# Convert the value to the base unit, that can be used. e.g. for setting new parameter value
toBaseUnit(quantity = bmiParam, values = 30, unit = "kg/m²")
#> [1] 0.3

liverVolume <- getParameter("Organism|Liver|Volume", sim)
print(liverVolume)
#> Parameter: 
#>    Path: Organism|Liver|Volume 
#>    Value: 2.1675 [l] 
#>    isDistributed: TRUE 
#>    isStateVariable: FALSE

liverVolume$allUnits
#> [1] "l"  "ml" "µl"

# Convert from base volume unit to µl
toUnit(quantity = liverVolume, values = c(1, 2, 3, 4), targetUnit = "ml")
#> [1] 1000 2000 3000 4000